Potential safety risks in pet food ingredients

The Australian Standard AS5812 Manufacturing and Marketing of pet food requires manufacturers of pet food to consider the safety risk when establishing HACCP plans for certain ingredients, for contaminants or for residues in ingredients, or in the product post-processing.

Specific items for consideration may include some ingredients, cross-contamination from previous batches, toxins from grains, heavy metals, melamine and related compounds and contaminants as a result of microbiological spoilage.

The following reference list is a non-exhaustive list of potential risks, relevant to pet foods, arising from raw materials, processing and post-processing incidents, together with applicable reference sources as guidance for pet food manufacturers.

CARRY OVER” Ingredient Maximum daily intake for dogs Reference Source
Ionophore lasalocid 1.0 mg/Kg body weight Alpharma
Ionophore monensin 1.25 mg/Kg body weight Alpharma
Ionophore salinomycin 2.5 mg/Kg body weight Alpharma

 

 

MYCOTOXINS Maximum level in finished product

@ 12% moisture

Reference Source
Aflatoxin B1 0.01 mg/Kg FEDIAF
Ochratoxin (OTA) 0.01 mg/Kg FEDIAF
Trichothecene (T2 + HT2) for cats 0.050 mg/Kg FEDIAF
Deoxynivalenol/Vomitoxin (DON) 5 mg/Kg FEDIAF
Zearalenone (ZEA) (Adult- not

reproduction)

0.2 mg/Kg FEDIAF
Fumonisin (B1 + B2) 5 mg/Kg FEDIAF

 

 

ANTIOXIDANTS Maximum daily intake Reference Source
Ethoxyquin (dogs) 75 mg/Kg FDA
Ethoxyquin, Butylhydroxyanisol,

Dibutylhydroxytoluene total (dogs)

150 mg/Kg FEDIAF

 

PESTICIDE RESIDUES Maximum daily intake Reference Source
Pirimiphos-methyl (wheat) 10 mg/Kg APVMA
Malathion (wheat bran) 20 mg/Kg APVMA
Chlorpyrifos-methyl (wheat) 20 mg/Kg APVMA
Methamidophos (oilseed) 0.1 mg/Kg APVMA
Glyphosate (wheat) 5 mg/Kg APVMA

 

ORGANOCHLORINES Maximum daily intake Reference Source
Aldrin, dieldrin, chlordane, etc 0.01 mg/Kg National Feed Standard
DDT 0.05 mg/Kg National Feed Standard
Dioxins, dioxin like PCBS 1.25 ng TEQ/Kg National Feed Standard

 

CONTAMINANTS Maximum daily intake Reference Source
Melamine 2.5 mg/Kg CCCF
Gentian violet Nil AAFCO
Propylene glycol (cat food) Nil AAFCO

 

HEAVY METALS Maximum level in finished product @ 12% moisture Complete pet foods only Reference Source
Cadmium (finished food) 0.5 mg/kg National Feed Standard
Lead (finished feed) 5 mg/kg FEDIAF-EU
Mercury (finished food) 0.4 mg/kg FEDIAF-EU

 

MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION   Reference Source
Salmonella Absence in 5 x 25 gm samples FEDIAF-EU

 

 

SPECIFIC INGREDIENTS

The following issues are listed to draw attention to risks associated with specific ingredients:

Heptatoxicosis in dogs following consumption of indospicine contaminated feral species. Use of raw materials from animals with feeding access to the native Indigofera species, prevalent in some outback areas, should be avoided.

Vitamin D toxicosis has been reported in cats and care is needed to ensure dietary levels meet AAFCO guidelines.

Caffeine, theobromine and theophylline are all closely related, naturally occurring chemicals (“methylxanthines”) of plant origin commonly found in foods and beverages, including coffee and chocolate products. Toxicity due to these compounds is most commonly seen in dogs eating chocolate products that can result in acute cardiac and central nervous system stimulation. Cats are also susceptible, but incidences may be less frequent due to the selective nature of their consumption. Methylxanthine compounds are recognised as potentially toxic to dogs and cats and should not be included in pet foods.

Sodium Nitrite may be used only in products over 20% moisture. Where used levels must not exceed 100mg/Kg of pet food* measured at 12% moisture content.

References:

  • Alpharma Technical Bulletin No. CD 0331
  • AAFCO- American Association of Feed Control Officials, official publication.  www.aafco.org
  • MAFF Japan- Ministry of Agriculture Forestry & Fisheries, Japan   www.maff.go.jp
  • FDA- Food & Drug Administration, US.  www.fda.gov
  • FEDIAF- The Eurpoean Petfood Federation, Bruxelles, Belgium,  www.fediaf.org
  • APVMA- Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority, Maximum Residue Limits for agricultural and veterinary chemicals in produce and animal feed www.apvma.gov.au
  • CCCF- Codex Committee on Contaminants if Food, Codex CCCF report http://www.codexalimentarius.net/web/archives.jsp?lang=en
  • National Feed Standard (draft)- refer Department of Agriculture & Water eEsources, Canberra. www.agriculture.gov.au
  • Saunders Elsevier. 2006. Small Animal Toxicology, 2nd ed. p.847, Petersen, M. Talcott P
  • *Official Journal of European Union “List of the authorised additives in feedingstuffs (1) published in the application of Article 9t (b) of Council Directive 70/524/EEC concerning additives in feedingstuffs (2004/C 50/01)”
  • European Union Reg 142/20011, page 32,http://eur- lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2011:054:0001:0254:EN:PDF